Category Archives: The DAM Book 3

The DAM Book 3.0 now available for pre-order!

We are pleased to announce that The DAM Book 3.0 is now available for pre-order! As with our previous books, you can pre-order the book for at a discount.

Here are the details:

  • Electronic book:  Regular price $34.95
  • Pre-order discount price:  $31.46
  • All pre-orders will get an advance copy of Chapter 1, Visually Speaking at the time of purchase.
  • We will deliver at least 7 of the additional 11 chapters by March 31st, 2018.
  • Additional chapters will deliver in April 2018.
(Click for larger view)

Print Copies
Print copies will be available over the summer. Your purchase of an electronic copy can be applied to a print copy, once it’s available.
More Info: Click The DAM Book 3.0 product page here.

Computational Tagging – What is it good for? (Absolutely something!)

This post is adapted from the forthcoming The DAM Book3.

There is a lot of hype and hazy discussion about the future of AI, but it’s often very loosely defined.  In a previous blog post, I made the case for lumping a lot of this into a category I’m calling Computational Tagging. In the second post, I made a distinction between Artificial Intelligence, Machine learning, and Deep Learning, In this post, I’ll outline a number of the capabilities that fall under the rubric of Computational Tagging.

What can computers tag for?

The subject matter will be an ever growing list, and in large part will be determined by the willingness of people and companies to pay for these services. but as of this writing, the following categories are becoming pretty common.

  • Objects shown – This was one of the first goals of AI services, and has come a long way. Most computational tagging services can identify objects, landscapes and other generically identifiable elements.
  • People and activities shown – AI services can usually identify if a person appears in a photo, although they may not know who it is unless it is a celebrity or unless the service has been trained for that particular person. Many activities can now be recognized by AI services, running the gamut from sports to work to leisure.
  • Specific People – Some services can be trained to recognize specific people in your library. Face tagging is part of most consumer-level services and is also found in some trainable enterprise services.
  • Species shown – Not long ago, it was hard for Artificial Intelligence to tell the difference between a cat and a dog. Now it’s common for some services to be able to tell you which breed of cat or dog (as well as many other animals and plants.) This is a natural fit for a machine learning project, since plants and animals are well-categorized training set and there are a lot of apparent use cases.
  • Adult content – Many computational tagging services can identify adult content, which is quite useful for automatic filtering. Of course, notions of what constitutes adult content varies greatly by culture.
  • Readable text – Optical Character Recognition has been a staple of AI services since the very beginning. This is now being extended to handwriting recognition.
  • Natural Language Processing – It’s one thing to be able to read text, it’s another thing to understand its meaning. Natural Language Processing (NLP) is the study of the way that we use language. NLP allows us to understand slang and metaphors in addition to strict literal meaning. (e.g. we can understand what the phrase “how much did those shoes set you back?”). NLP is important in tagging, but even more important in the search process.
  • Sentiment analysis – Tagging systems may be able to add some tags that describe sentiments. (e.g. It’s getting common for services to categorize facial expressions as being happy, sad or mad.) Some services may also be able to assign an emotion tag to images based upon subject matter, such as adding the keyword “sad” to a photo of a funeral.
  • Situational analysis – One of he next great leaps in Computational Tagging will be true machine learning capability for situational analysis. Some of this is straightforward (e.g. “this is a soccer game”.) Some is more difficult (“This is a dangerous situation.”) At the moment, a lot of situational analysis is actually rule based. (e.g. Add the keyword vacation when you see a photo of a beach.)
  • Celebrities – There is a big market of celebrity photos, and there are excellent training sets.
  • Trademarks and products – Trademarks are also easy to identify, and there is a ready market for trademark identification (e.g. alert me whenever our trademark shows up in someone’s Instagram feed). When you get to specific products, you probably need to have a trainable system.
  • Graphic elements – ML services can evaluate images according to nearly any graphic component. This includes shapes and colors in an image, These can be used to find similar images across a single collection or on the web at large. This was an early capability of rule-based AI service, and remains an important goal for both ML and DL services. .
  • Aesthetic ranking – Computer vision can do some evaluation of image quality. It can find faces, blinks and smiles. It can also check for color, exposure and composition and make some programmatic ranking assessments.
  • Image Matching services – Image matching as a technology is pretty mature, but the services built on image matching are just beginning. Used on the open web, for instance, image matching can tell you about the spread of an idea or meme. It can also help you find duplicate or similar images within your own system, company or library.
  • Linked data – There is an unlimited body of knowledge about the people, places and events shown in an image collection – far more than could ever be stuffed in to a database.  Linking media objects to data stacks will be a key tool to understanding the subject matter of the photo in a programmatic context.
  • Data exhaust – I use this term to mean the personal data that you create as you move through the world, which could be used to help understand the meaning and context of an image. Your calendar entries, texts or emails all contain information that is useful for automatically tagging images. There are lots of difficult privacy issues related to this, but it’s the most promising way to attach knowledge specific to the creator to the object.
  • Language Translation – We’re probably all familiar with the ability to use Google Translate to change a phrase from one language to another. Building language translation into image semantics will help to make it a truly transcultural communication system.

Update on DAM Book 3

It is with a healthy dose of chagrin that I report that the publication of The DAM Book 3 will be postponed yet again. I have been working on the book full time for the last three months (and quite a bit before that), and it is simply taking a long time to get it done properly.

When I announced an outline and publication date in early September, I was assuming that I could reuse as much as 40% of the copy in the book. As it currently stands, that number is hovering at close to 1%. Changes in the digital photography ecosystem and in the book’s scope  have driven a need to rewrite everything.

Not only has the rewriting been time consuming, but the changes in imaging and associated technologies has required a lot of research. I’ve been chasing down a lot of details on topics like artificial intelligence and machine learning, new technologies like depth mapping, and the state of the art in emerging metadata standards. It’s been a lot more work than I anticipated.

We saw a couple late-breaking changes that have been very important to include in the book. October’s release of a cloud-native version of Lightroom helps to complete the puzzle of where imaging and media management

Complicating matters, I’m going in for ankle replacement surgery in early December. I’ll be finishing the book while my leg is healing. But the pace at which I can work while recuperating is unknown, so I’m not prepared to make another announcement about publication dates.

In the end, I’ve had to choose between hitting a deadline and making the book be as good as possible. I’ve opted for quality.

Sneak Peek blog posts

I’ve been working with my editor to identify and publish content from the new book as we continue in production. The first series of these posts will provide some insight on Computational Tagging, a subject I first posted about last month.

Computational Tagging – Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, and Deep learning

This post is adapted from the forthcoming The DAM Book3.

There is a lot of hype and hazy discussion about the future of AI, but it’s often very loosely defined.  In a previous blog post, I made the case for lumping a lot of this into a category I’m calling Computational Tagging. In this post, I’ll split that into some large component parts. (Read the next post here).

What’s the difference between Computational Tagging, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, and Deep Learning?

While the definitions of these processes have a lot of overlap, we can draw some useful distinctions. Let’s use a Venn diagram to illustrate the relationships.

Computational tagging refers to any system of automated tagging that is done by a computer. This includes the metadata added by your camera. It also includes information like a Wikipedia page or other network-accessible information  that could be added by simple linking.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) encompasses any computer technology that appears to emulate human reasoning. AI could be as simple as a set of rules that can create an intelligent looking behavior (e.g. a self-driving car could be taught the “rule” that you don’t want to cross a double yellow line.) AI also includes the more complex services  outlined below.

Machine Learning (ML) is a subset of AI that is more complex. Instead of just following an established  set of rules, in an ML environment, the system can be trained to discover the rules. An ML system for identifying species, for instance, uses a training set of tagged images to figure out what a Labrador retriever looks like.

Deep Learning (DL) is a specific type of ML that makes use of a predictive model in its learning process. This process actually mimics the way the brain works. In Deep Learning, the system does not just look at  results, but it uses a predictive model to train itself.  It is constantly testing a hypothesis against results, and adjusting the hypothesis according to this results.

Here’s how it works in your brain. The central nervous system is providing constant  input stimulus. Your brain then makes constant predictions about what the next input should be. When the input does not match the prediction, it recalibrates. You experience this process when you taste something you expect to be sweet and it’s salty, or when you take a step and the level of the ground is not where you expect it to be.

Read the next post here.

Computational Tagging

In my SXSW panel this year, Ramesh Jain and Anna Dickson and I delved into the implications of Artificial Intelligence (AI) becoming a commodity, which will be a commonplace reality by the end of 2017.  We looked at several classes of services and considered what they were good for.

I’ve been spending a lot of time on the subject over the last few months writing The DAM Book 3. Clearly AI will be important in collection management and the deployment of images for various types of communication.

But I  hate using the term AI to describe the array of services that help you make sense of your photos. There’s actually a bunch of useful stuff that is not technically AI. Adding date or GPS info is definitely not AI. And linking to other data (like a wikipedia page) is not really AI. ( It’s actually just linking). Machine Learning and programmatic tagging comes in a lot of forms – some is really basic, and some is complex.

The term Computational Imaging was pretty obscure when the last version of The Dam Book was published, but it’s become a very common term. I think this is a useful concept to extend to the whole AI/Machine Learning/Data Scraping/Programmatic Tagging stack.

In The DAM Book 3, I’m using the term Computational Tagging to refer to all the computer-based tagging methods that involve some level of automation. This runs from the tags made by the computer in my camera to the sophisticated AI environments of the future. At the moment, it’s not widely-used term (Google shows 138 instances on the web), but I think it’s the best general description for the automatic and computer-assisted tagging that are becoming an essential part of working with images.

Progress on DAM Book 3

As promised, I’m providing a significant update on The DAM Book 3. The book is moving along quite well, although significant work remains. We are setting a very conservative release date of November 22nd. We may be able to move this up as the writing and layout moves along.  I also promised a look at the Table of Contents, and you can find it here.

I’ve spent the last two months working to integrate the new elements of the digital photography ecosystem into a cohesive discussion of how the parts interconnect. I’ve also done lot of work to disentangle stuff that looks similar, but has important differences.

For instance, how is a synced filesystem utility like Dropbox fundamentally different than a cloud library service like Libris, and what is each one good for?

I’ve also spent a good deal of time speaking to the many experts I know in the field of imaging, testing my assumptions, and checking to see if I’m missing any big elements in the ecosystem.

With the scope and structure locked down, and all the old copy redlined and commented, I’m entering the home stretch. Now it’s time to finish the execution. Some chapters are basically done, and some are still in outline form. I expect that we’ll see some small changes in the Table of Contents, but those changes should be minor.

We’re still running our Dam Book 2 special. Buy The DAM Book 2 for $19.95 and get $15 off The DAM Book 3. At some point in the next month or so, we will start discounted pre-sales for The DAM Book 3. Sign up for our mailing list (on the top right of this page) to stay up to date on our special offers and release dates.