The Library area used to contain something similar, but they hard-coded the years but only up to 2007 - then released v2 so late that we were already in 2008.... But you need to look at smart albums. Click on All Images in the Library area, then create a new Smart Album.
You also need to understand the overall concept of Aperture. One way to think of it is as iView's Catalog Sets gone mad, so you import files into "Projects" - the equivalent of Catalog Sets. You don't see your real Finder folders at all, projects are what it's all about. Scary, huh? But it's OK if you believe hard enough. Each project then contains groupings - these can be albums (sets) to which you do drag and drop, or smart albums which are like iView's Saved Finds or Finder's smart folders - ie you build a search query. Smart albums are one of the better features - if you start one off from All Images, the filter is applied to all images, but if you start it off from one project, it only shows items from that project.
Make sure you look at the new video tutorials, import the sample projects, and there's a great blog by Bagelturf
who is apparently "Shining out like a shaft of gold when all around is dark". Some of his early posts explain the concept.
Clear as mud?